Shush is a city in the North-West of Ahwaz with hot and dry weather. The city gains a new economic significance when Iran’s railroad was made. The historic attractions of the city, next to the holy shrine of Daniel, bring many visitors to Shush each year. With economic growth resulting from the investment in the area, more and more people immigrated and new job opportunities were provided. The three rivers of Karkheh, Dez and Shavoor are very influential in Shush’s thriving agriculture, and their banks are a suitable place for outings.
The ancient city of Shush, which is known in English as Susa, is one of the most important cities of Iran around Achaemenid time. The city was the capital of the great power of Elamite and the winter capital of Achaemenid kings. Although the city was popular in the mentioned era, the excavations here give us an 8-thousands-year history. In Greek, the city was known as Susana, and had other names including Susa, Sus, Susiana, and Suziana. The name might refer to the Liliaceae (Susanian in Farsi) that is a family of flowers. In middle ages, Susa was a massive city with strong fortification, citadel, bazaar, and mosque. The city is known for its silk products, Saccharum, and Bergamot orange. Besides, the shrine of Daniel the prophet makes the city a popular religious destination. With the center of Khuzestan province being moved to Ahwaz, the city lost its popularity.
Around 2700 years BC, the city becomes the center of Elamites and keeps its position as one of the capitals up to the end of Achaemenid time. It means that the city was the capital of the country for more than 3000 years. Until the Mongol’s attack, the city is prosperous and a center of trade, politics and arts; however, with the Mongol invasion comes the beginning of the city’s decline. From what is remained of its primetime, we understand that like other empire of the time, women were well respected, had the right of ownership, had jobs outside house and were active in trades. There are the names of female members of the king’s family mentioned in the Elamites heritages that prove the importance of women. The Elamites were polytheistic with two gods being more important than the others. One is Hoban, and the other is Inšušinak that is known as the god of Susa.
Although the city never loses importance, with the defeat of Elamites it become less crucial in the political and economic life of the country. In Achaemenid time, however, the lost status is regained, and once again Susa shines. Being on the path of Royal Roads that Darius the Great made, adds to the city’s significance. The Royal Roads connected Takht-e Jamshid (Persepolis) as the political capital of Achaemenid to Susa, Pasargadae and Lydia.
Susa is the 18th heritage to be registered from Iran. The site includes several subsections including, the Shaoor palace, Apadana palace, East gate, Hadish palace, Fifteenth city, Achaemenid village, Acropol mound, Islamic constructs, Jameh mosque of Shush, and French mansion.